This time I don’t have a project, nor probably will have time to implement them (I’m on real holidays!), so I’ll just post the ideas and welcome any comments on the feasibility or usefulness of them. Feel free to implement them and let me know how it went.

Independent Bayesian Agents

An Artificial Neural Network is a collection of neurons connected in meaningful ways that, when the information, coming from an input layer, passes through them, a resulting signal is produced on the output layer. The learning is done via feedback (good or bad), by changing the internal functions of each neuron to accommodate them for the next “pulse”.

The problem with this is that, after the learning phase, the resulting network can only classify a strict class of problems. Networks created to recognise alphabetical letter in an image has a different format and components than those to recognise other patterns. There are some implementations where the network itself can change its connections in order to learn something new, but that’s not commonly seen, not even on many scientific works on the subject.

You can have the same network structure using Bayesian nodes. The class of problems to be solved are not the same but the overall logic is similar.

Bayesian Agents are different. They are independent, learning programs that might be able to communicate with other agents upon necessity and also update their internal states from feedback and previous probabilities. It also has the advantage to return not only true/false values but probabilities or even probability distributions to the user.

But this way, your agents will be much more complex than the neurons on ANN, and that’s a path that is rarely worth taking if you want to build emergent behaviour as it becomes more and more difficult to combine them to produce unexpected behaviours. So, the idea is to break all the agents into very small pieces that can interact with each other, with just a few rules.

This way, the agents themselves would be pretty much like objects in an OO design, following the implementation of a class (agent definition) and inheriting or using methods from other Agents (interaction) you can, at the same time, build a network with any format you want (using graphs or even network connections via name service or so for the interactions) and keep it simple, by following the agent definition and not trying to put any complex logic on each agent.

Same as OO design, you don’t want to create one single class that does everything. What you do is a relationship between classes that express the problem set you’re solving and, if well designed, you can reuse some of the components to solve other problems as well. The power of the OO design is the relationship between the classes and not what the classes are actually doing, right?

So, my hunch is that, if we do very simple agents and let the network itself be the relationship between them, we acquire a new power of extensibility.

Also, by changing the connections, the learning happens at the network level instead of the agent level. Further on, by inflicting an “explorer behaviour” on each agent (like extending from a common class Explorer for all agents), they can search for new answers once in a while, in background, to increase their confidence levels.

In the same line, by extending from an agent Feedback you can make all agents be able to process feedback from the users, from its derived classes such as BooleanFeedback returning good or bad, or MultipleChoiceFeedback, ContinuousFeedback and so on.

Genetic programming using template Policies

Learning by structure given above (network structure) is similar to genetic algorithms, but in a different level. Genetic programming allows you to learn by the structure of the program itself. A standard way to solve that is using a rulebase approach. Create a big set of simple rules and write programs to use them in a mixed fashion.

Given the problem you want to solve, run all programs against it and try to define the quality of each solution (if they’re at least able to get somewhere) and give those programs closer to the solution a higher chance of survival, but don’t kill the unfit, and that’s an important step.

If there are good, but dormant, rules (genes) on the unfit and you kill them, you’re removing from genetic pool (rulebase) some solutions that could be the best when joint with others that you didn’t have the chance to join yet. Anyway, crossing those programs (by exchanging rules and creating new combinations) and running the next breed on the same problem you can, iteratively, lead the evolution towards the best solution by chance.

So, what about template policies?

C++ templates are very powerful. One of the great powers (which comes with great responsibility) is to be able to inherit functionality from the template argument.

template <class EatPolicy, MovePolicy, ReproducePolicy>
class LifeForm : public EatPolicy, MovePolicy, ReproducePolicy {
};

With this, you can create a life form following one of the policies provided. They will inherit the methods and properties of the policies as if it was a normal OO inheritance. So, to create a bacterium, just implement some policies inheriting from EatPolicy, MovePolicy and ReproducePolicy and instantiate like this:

LifeForm<Fermentation, Osmosis, Mitosis> bacteria;

You can also create several policies inheriting from Fermentation (from different materials, etc) and create several types of bacteria, but the problem is how to cross them later. Because templates are evaluated during compile time (and types are created), you can’t create new types during run time and the crossing over should be done off-line (and recompile). A few pre-processor commands and a Perl script could do it, though, and isolate that nasty part from the rest of the code.

I’m not sure of the implementation details of the cross-over but the basic skeleton did work: Skeleton of genetic policies. Would give it a try later on.

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